Challenge mobility transition

Urban shared mobility network

Change in travel behavior
Eindhoven has grown considerably over the past 100 years. Industrial developments and population growth, driven by companies such as Philips and ASML, have ensured that employees from all over the world live and work in Eindhoven. Densification will continue to play an important role in Eindhoven in the coming years. Until 2040, 62,000 homes and 72,000 FTEs will be added within the Eindhoven Urban Area, of which about 40,000 will be within the municipal boundaries and 21,000 of these within the Ring. Naturally, these people will also make use of Eindhoven’s urban facilities. This increases the pressure on public space. We strive for a city that is safe and easily accessible for everyone, with an eye for sustainability and a well-maintained public space for living, moving and meeting in
the streets. That is why we opt for a transition within mobility: a substantial change in travel behaviour. More walking, cycling, public transport or shared mobility and less car use. We do this to keep the city safe and easily accessible for everyone. The figure below shows the ambitions per area with regard to the shift to the share of car, public transport, bicycle use and walking. To achieve this, it is important to: tackle existing bottlenecks and absorb new mobility by investing in the public transport system leap (rail, public transport, hubs), bicycle/cycling facilities (driving and parking), cycle routes, smart lanes, slow lanes, /location policy, intelligent traffic management (C-ITS) and from there on in behavioral change, employer approach, mobility as a service, shared mobility and smart logistics. The role of the car is limited by reducing the speed to 30 km/h, parking via hubs as standard and a steering parking policy (urban parking standards and rates, area development, parking at a distance).

Shared mobility in Eindhoven
In April 2019, Eindhoven started organizing shared mobility in the city. The Share Mobility Agenda sets out how we as Eindhoven deal with shared mobility. We see shared mobility as a means to achieve the overarching ambitions that we have as a city: an attractive living climate (clean air, more space for greenery and water), international connections and accessibility, and the climate objectives. This has resulted in the following four guiding choices:

  1. The Municipality of Eindhoven has an inviting attitude towards the use of various forms of sustainable shared mobility in the city and is in charge of the roll-out, quality and organization.
  2. In Eindhoven, we are encouraging traffic-safe and sustainable use of shared mobility in the physical space.
  3. We are working towards a city-wide and collaborative network of shared mobility with a healthy mix of offers.
  4. Shared mobility in Eindhoven is visible, recognizable and accessible to everyone.

One of the actions on the agenda was the development of a legal framework for shared mobility. From January 2020 it was prohibited to offer shared vehicles in Eindhoven, unless you have a permit or exemption (see APV article 2.52C). In order to be eligible for a permit or exemption, providers must meet certain conditions, see Policy Rules for Permits and Exemptions for Bicycle Shares and Shared LEVs 2020-2023 and Designation Decree on Shared Mobility February 2022.

The starting point in recent years has been to gain experience and learn from shared mobility in Eindhoven. That is why the term of the permits is limited (2 years with the possibility of an extension of one year) and we have the option of small-scale experiments of 1 year by means of an exemption. All permits and exemptions have an expiry date of 1 June 2023.

Eindhoven state of affairs on shared mobility
Eindhoven has an inviting attitude towards shared mobility, which has enabled us to arrive at a broad and diverse range that meets demand and stimulates demand. Based on this supply-oriented approach, we want to offer residents and visitors the opportunity to become acquainted with it and to encourage its use.

State of affairs for shared two-wheelers in public space May 2022.

Since 2019, we have been gaining experience with shared two-wheelers in Eindhoven on the basis of permits and exemptions. June 1, 2023 has been set as the latest expiry date for all permits and exemptions so that, after this period of experience and learning, we can determine our next approach. That moment is now here.

At the same time, there are also other challenges that Eindhoven, like other cities, faces. There is an enormous housing development task in Eindhoven, which largely results in a densification task within the Ring. In addition, we are working towards a car-free city center where there is only room for local traffic, and a zero emission zone within the Ring. Shared mobility has the potential to play an important role in this and to keep the city accessible and liveable.
In recent years, shared mobility has been extended to the neighboring municipalities and we are experiencing the desire, both among municipalities and providers, to create a regional network of shared mobility.

Our question:

  1. To what extent have we succeeded in realizing a city-wide and coherent network?
  2. To what extent do supply and demand (use) of partial mobility match? Where is the unfulfilled potential for shared mobility (think of journeys ending at the edge of a service area)?
  3. What are hotspots for shared vehicle use? Is there a relationship between neighborhoods and use? What is the share of regional journeys?

Available information
During the permit and exemption period, data was collected on the use of the shared vehicles. This data, together with relevant policy documents and agreements, serves as input:

  • Agenda Share Mobility
  • Policy Rules Permits and Exemptions for bicycle sharing and LEVs 2020 – 2023, different versions.
  • Designation Decree Share Mobility
  • Survey of residents: DigiPanel – Share mobility by BiO_DigiPanel – Infogram

Data sources mobility for the Stadslab Mobility Hackathon:
Data on shared mobility in Eindhoven:

  • Trip origin, destination, length, duration, modality (e-bike, scooter, car)
    Available upon request, data sharing agreement and NDA required

Open data portal Eindhoven:
includes location of parking spaces, charging facilities, car sharing spots, etc

Open Traffic Data (national, cars, intensities and trip times):

  • NDW Dexter (

Open Traffic Data (national, bikes intensities):

  • NDW Dexter (

Open Public Transport
NDOV Loket (bus, train stops, timetables, vehicle data) REQUIRES registration beforehand

Parking Pressure Eindhoven:
Parking research Eindhoven (

RDW vehicle and parking data:
Open Dates Parking: PARKING ACCESS | Socrata API Foundry

Demographics Eindhoven:
The people of ( (cluster analysis of types of inhabitants)
Eindhoven in Figures – New (statistical information on the city, economy, etc)
Data Eindhoven Neighborhoods – GEB – Infogram (detailed information on neighborhoods of Eindhoven)

Complaint’s shared mobility:
Notifications (through Eindhoven open data portal)

Recent survey on shared mobility in Eindhoven:

  • Results Digipanel 2021 – use and needs of shared mobility

Mobility metrics for the Province of North Brabant:
State of Mobility Brabant Public – Mobility – Data portal Brabant – Province of North Brabant

Car, cycle counts Eindhoven:
Downloadable dataset on request, concerning all (100+) counting locations in the city,for multiple years.

Sustainable mobility metrics (CROW):
Sustainability score – Mobility system – Northeast Brabant (

Air quality NO2 measurements (starting 2011, 35 locations):
Air quality measurements | Eindhoven municipality

RIVM (national institute for public health and environment) air quality (PM2.5, PM10,..)
Measuring Together – Data Portal (